Descartes and Kant argue that higher level functional and rational

4. Regan claims that all sentient beings have interests, and as such, they are subjects of their own lives, whatever their characteristics or species membership. Evaluate the claim that having interests is necessary as well as sufficient for moral standing. In the course of your answer, feel free to refer to any of the course material we have covered. 5. Descartes and Kant argue that higher level functional and rational capacities depend upon basic facility with language and linguistic ability. Kant, in particular, argues that we can only have indirect duties to animals. Compare and contrast their positions on the notion of language facility to determine moral standing. Evaluate the challenge of Bentham’s position regarding moral standing to Descartes’ and Kant’s positions? 6. Evaluate the following claim: Several of our authors have challenged the idea that the moral standing of animals is based on species membership. By implication, they also challenge the idea that the moral standing of humans is fundamentally based on the fact that they belong to the species Homo sapiens. We do not say that it is wrong to inflict pain on a dog because it is a member of a certain species. It is wrong because it is a sentient being capable of feeling a painful stimulus. Although there are objective distinctions between species, discuss whether those objective differences are sufficient for making comparative judgments about moral standing. In the course of your answer, be sure to refer to at least one or two of the assigned authors. 7. Mark Bekoff analyzes animal play and hypothesizes it is evidence for animal morality, based on several important biological, behavioral, and social characteristics. Assess his position and conclusion. In the course of your answer, compare his findings with the videos: “How Smart are Animals” and “Animal Morality” with Frans deWaal. 8. Two papers by Bernard Rollin consider the subject of animal pain, “The Ethical Imperative to Control Pain and Suffering in Farm Animals,” and “Animal Pain.” Rollin argues that we are justified in making comparisons between animal pain and human sensation of pain. Evaluate and discuss his position and his justifications for that position in the context of the paper by Griffin and Speck, “New Evidence of Animal Consciousness. 9. The term, “animal industrial complex,” refers to the collective interests responsible for institutionalized exploitation of non-human animals, including the 56 billion animals raised for food consumption each year. Evaluate and compare Foer’s claims with relevant claims made by the movie, “Cowspiracy.” Each of the three questions is worth approximately 33 1/3 points. Total for the three questions is 100 points. This take home examination is designed to give the student an opportunity to address the course material and to synthesize answers to the questions using proper technical vocabulary, course readings, videos, seminar lectures, course notes, and online and in-class discussions. Your grade will depend upon proper grammar, mechanics, and use of academic citations. You are welcome to use Chicago style, APA, or MLA. Be consistent in your use of citations.

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